Tigers are a crucial part in the ecosystem and unfortunately, also one of the most endangered animals on Earth. They are the main predators and keep their prey who are mainly herbivores in balance with the ecology. If the Tigers are not there to eat the herbivores, then the herbivores would feed on the forest and slowly consume the trees and plants. This along with humans destroying the forest would cost a lot to our environment.
India started their Tiger conservation programme called Project Tiger in 1973. This was an essential measure since the population of the famous Bengal Tiger was decreasing. So, the project recognized few Tiger Reserves as the breeding ground and from where the Tigers would migrate to nearby forests.
The government had also formed a Tiger Protection Force to catch the poachers before any harm is done to the Tigers. The villagers whose land was taken under the Tiger Reserve areas where also funded for relocation and to avoid the interaction between humans and Tigers in the future.
But a gradual increase in Tiger’s population was seen after the 2006 amendment in the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. A committee was constituted under the act called National Tiger Conservation Authority to provide a legal framework for saving the Tigers from poachers.
Some new measures like analysis of the density of tigers in a particular area, their prey, and co-predators, geo-tagging the tigers to track their movement, were considered. Data helped in surveying the numbers of Tigers and also keep a track of their health and lifestyle. This project helped in the improvement of the lifespan of the Tigers and their population increased to 2,22 by 2015.
Forest land comprises only 26 percent of the land in Asia and Pacific today. This means 70 percent of the Tigers population in India have to reside in less than 26 percent of land area. This puts a lot of pressure on the National Tiger Reserves in India.
Thus, it becomes essential for the government and the environment activists to save the tigers and increase the forest reserves and national parks. National Parks helps not only in contributing to the tourism sector of the state but also in generating awareness among the people about Tigers and their survival issues. There has been a tremendous loss of their species in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka where most of the tigers reside in India. Tigers death are happening due to commercial demand of their bones and skin in China.
But MP has taken various steps to increase its Tiger population and save them from villages and illegal poachers. The stories that are heard in Wildlife Tours in Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, Panna Tiger Reserve, and Kahna National Park are famous in the state and thus attract more tourists from different countries.
Many corridors are being constructed to help the Tigers move from one source area to another. This helps in the gene flow and also help them in expressing themselves as territorial beings. With our support through tourism and appropriate Budget allocation for salaries of people working in and around the Tiger Project, for expansion of reserves and corridors for Tigers, for measures against poacher and illegal traders, India can sustain and provide for its Tigers.